Yorkshire wildlife, from red kites to hares, hedgehogs, and seals. Notes on the animals and birds, including description, behaviour and life cycle, plus our own photos.
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Grey seal, Yorkshire
There are grey seals in Yorkshire, living in colonies on the coast. They tolerate humans, but not too close, and not if they feel their route to the sea is cut off. It is a wonderful privilege to be able to see and photograph them, but with that comes an obligation to be as discreet as possible, and to avoid disturbing them.
Seals and walruses are within the Order Pinnipedia ('flap-footed'). Grey seals are in the family Phocidae (true seals), and the genus Halichoerus. The scientific name for the species is Halichoerus grypus, which is said to mean 'sea pig with a hooked nose'.
Grey seals are sometimes called Atlantic seals, because they live on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean.
About half the world's grey seals live in British and Irish waters (Britain's Mammals, by the People's Trust for Endangered Species). Eastern and western Atlantic populations have been genetically distinct for at least a million years, and could be considered as separate subspecies (Wikipedia).
Grey seals are 1.4 to 2.5m long, with females averaging 1.8m, and males 2.1m. They weigh 130-144kg. Their eyes are large, and they have long whiskers.
A thick layer of blubber just beneath the skin insulates seals from the cold when they are in the water (Britain's Mammals).
Grey seals have a longer face than common (harbour) seals, and fewer spots on their bodies.
Grey seal bull (the larger, darker seal in the middle of the group)
As well as the difference in size and weight noted above, there is considerable variation in grey seals' coloration. Bulls are darker, with just a few lighter patches. Cows' fur is lighter, with some dark patches. Seals' coats look lighter when they have been out of the water for some time, and darken when wet.
The differences in weight and colour between males and females are examples of their sexual dimorphism - different characteristics in the two sexes of the same species. Another distinction is the shape of their faces: bulls' noses have a more prominent bridge - called a Roman or aquiline nose; cows have a shorter nose without the prominent bridge. The photo below shows the difference.
Female grey seal (above) and male
Lifespan is up to 20 years for males, and 35 years for females.
Grey seals live on rocky coasts, and eat fish (especially sand eels), squid, lobster, and occasionally birds (Britain's Mammals). Their daily requirement is about 5kg of food (Wikipedia).
Grey seals have no natural predators in UK waters, but are threatened by pollution and getting entangled in discarded fishing nets.
The UK population is about 200,000, and they are currently protected under the EC Habitats Directive.
Between late September and December, a female seal gives birth to a single pup, which is born with creamy white fur, called lanugo.
Seal pup, Donna Nook
The mother nurses the pup for 2-3 weeks, during which time it gains weight quickly from its mother's rich milk. The mother, on the other hand, loses weight, because she does not eat during this time.
After it is weaned, the pup is left to fend for itself. It stays on land and moults. Having shed its pup fur, the young seal grows dense, waterproof adult fur, and it can enter the water - usually at about one month old. It will then rely on instinct to catch fish.
When she finishes suckling her pup, a female is ready to mate again (animalcorner.co.uk).
Male grey seals seek to breed with several females. Some males defend a group of females, and others try to control access to beaches (Britain's Mammals). Like female seals, males don't eat during the mating period, and rely on their stored blubber for energy.
After mating, the gestation period is eleven and a half months, including a 3 month delay in the implantation of the fertilised egg (animalcorner). As a result, the female comes back to the same rocky or sandy place on the coast the following year to give birth and begin the cycle again.
Seals at Ravenscar:
There's also a slideshow of seals at Donna Nook (new web page):
All images © Hedgehog Cycling
The brown hare, or European hare, is a charismatic wild resident of Yorkshire. This non-native species has been in Britain since Roman times at least. Preferring arable land, or grassland with hedges, brown hares are most likely to be seen in the spring. That's the time of year when they may display 'boxing' behaviour.
Read about the brown hare.